"define UNIVERSE and give two examples"       Barton E Dahneke


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For thermal diffusion and thermophoresis, see Appendix F.

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      Many scientists and others expect the mysteries of 
nature to soon (or at least eventually) be understood in 
terms of a few general and fundamental principles, theo-
ries, and laws of science.  One such theory is called a 
theory of everything (TOE) and also a grand unified
theory (GUT).  We summarize the power of science and 
the considerable knowledge obtained by it, both of which 
properties make science a fascinating topic of study.  
However, neither scientists nor philosophers have yet 
established the nature of an underlying material reality.  
Indeed, science has yet to resolve any issue on a univer-
sal or absolute basis.  Each deeper level of insight reached 
in science has brought deeper and broader confusion 
about the nature of reality.  Students of science there-
fore draw from an ever expanding reservoir of knowl-
edge but confront ever deeper and more curious ques-
tions and increasingly profound uncertainty.  
     And many regard utterly abominable moral abuses 
in post-apostolic Christianity (and in religion more gen-
erally) as well as present confusion as disqualifying re-
ligion as a reliable path to or source of truth.  Paul (Bible: 
2 Timothy 3:7) foresaw our day and warned that in the 
last days (now) men shall be “ever learning, and never 
able to come to the knowledge of the truth.”  This de-
scription fits well all of science and philosophy and most 
of today’s religions.  How, then, is one to establish truth?
      We address this question in this book by first sum-
marizing science to its present frontiers of TOE/GUT 
research.  We simultaneously consider fundamental limi-
tations in science-based knowledge.  Likewise, we con-
sider confusion and its origins in current Christianity, 
but largely avoid them in plumbing Christian meaning 
using critically-important Christian doctrine, principles, 
and practices in the Bible.  To lesser degree we consider 
philosophy and its poverty of utility for establishing truth.
      Scientific and Christian methodologies for establish-
ing truth are examined and compared.  Individual and 
comparative examinations provide important insights 
into both.  Critical consideration of scientific and Chris-
tian methodology indicates which should be most pow-
erful, but this image is drastically distorted when his-
tory is consulted.  We consider what went wrong. 
      Both science and today’s orthodox Christianity se-
verely limit the discovery of truth while the original, 
uncorrupted Christianity described in the Bible does not.  
We consider Biblical doctrine and practice for estab-
lishing truth and, in this light, criticize both science and 
today’s orthodox Christianity.  We also consider one 
Christian denomination that gets the methodology right.   
      Barton E. Dahneke received degrees through the 
Ph.D. in mechanical engineering taking many courses 
in physics, chemistry, and mathematics.

      Dahneke has worked in corporate and government 
laboratories in the USA and Germany and in academe.  
He has held faculty positions at multiple universities, 
sometimes simultaneously, in departments of Mechani-
cal Engineering, Environmental Engineering Science, 
Chemical Engineering, Biophysics, and Electronics and 
Instrumentation.  He has consulted for a number of cor-
porations and published widely on topics relating to par-
ticle processes and measurements.  
      Dahneke holds several patents and helped found a 
company to manufacture and sell one of his inventions: 
a time-of-flight spectrometer for measuring size distri-
butions of particles in powders, liquid suspensions (col-
loids and slurries), or gases (dust, smoke, haze, pollu-
tion, contamination).  Several hundred instruments were 
shipped worldwide.  
      Dahneke’s interest in particle physics and particle-
process measurement and control continues.  He still 
consults and writes in these areas and now also writes in 
other areas like those treated in this book.  

Credits: astronomical images on this jacket were pho-
tographed with the Hubble Telescope by Space Tele-
scope Science Institute (STScI) and are used with 
their permission.  Jacket design and art by John